sustainability management

College of Engineering
Research & Scholarship in Sustainability


Civil Engineering Faculty Research in Sustainability

Donald Carpenter
Hiroshan Hettiarachchi
Nabil Grace

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications in Sustainability
Nabil Grace

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Research in Sustainability
Dr. Robert W. Fletcher
Dr. Badih Jawad
Dr. Vladimir Vantsevich



Donald Carpenter

Using an Integrative Assessment Approach to Restore a Natural Flow Regime in the Clinton River Watershed

KSI Structural Stormwater Chamber Performance Evaluation

Lawrence Technological University Participation in the 2007 RETAP Pollution Prevention Internship Program

Rain Garden Design & Public Education Outreach

Lawrence Technological University Participation in the 2006 RETAP Pollution Prevention Internship Program

Lawrence Technological University Sustainable and Energy Efficient Equipment and Technologies Project

An investigation of storm water capacity and infiltration of rain gardens


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Hiroshan Hettiarachchi

Bioreactor Landfills

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Nabil Grace

Alternate materials (composites)  in civil engineering bridge structures

Journal Publications:
Carpenter, D.D. & Hallam, L. (2009). "Impact of Engineered Soil Characteristics on Bioretention Cell Performance." Manuscript accepted for publication in Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. 01/30/2009.

Slate, L., Shields, D., Schwartz, J., Carpenter, D., & Freeman, G. (2007), "Engineering Design Standards for Stream Channel Modification or Restoration."  Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 133(10), pp 1-4.
Carpenter, D.D., S.K. Sinha, K. Brennan, and L. Slate (2003), "Urban Stream Restoration."  Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 129(7) pp 491-493.

Meadows, G. L. Meadows, D.D. Carpenter, W.L. Wood, and B. Caufield (1998), "The Great Lakes Groin Performance Experiment, Phase II: Effect of Groin Field."  Shore and Beach. vol. 66, no. 2.

Rohelder, W. J., Tang, B., Doe, T. A., Grace, N. F., and Burgess, C. J., "CFRP Strands Application on Penobscot     Narrow Cable Stayed Bridge," Transportation Research Board Journal, January 2008.

Grace, N. F., Enomoto, T., Abdel-Mohti, A., Tokal, Y., Purayankara, S., "Behavior of Concrete Box Beam Bridge Prestressed with Carbon Fiber Composite Cables," PCI Journal, accepted for publication for 2008.

Grace, N. F., Jensen, E., Soliman, E., Matsagar, V., Hanson, J., "Transverse Diaphragms and Unbonded CFRP Transverse Post-Tensioning in Side-by-Side Box-Beam Bridges," ACI Structural Journal, submitted 2008.

Grace, N. F., Enomoto, T., Sachidanandan, S., and Purayankara, S., "Use of CFRP/CFCC Reinforcement in Prestressed Concrete Box Beam Bridges," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 103, No. 1, January/February 2006, pp. 123-132.
 
Grace, N.F., Roller, J. J., Navarre, F. N., Nacey, R.B., and Bonus, W., "Truck Load Distribution Behavior of the Bridge Street Bridge, Southfield, Michigan," PCI Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, March/April 2005, pp.76-89.

Grace, N. F., Singh, S. B., Shinouda, M.M., and Sunup, S. M., "Concrete Beams Prestressed with CFRP," ACI Concrete International, Vol. 27, No. 2, February 2005, pp. 60-64.

Grace, N. F., and Singh, S. B., "Durability Evaluation of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Polymer Strengthened Concrete Beams: Experimental Study and Design," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 102, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 40-51.

Grace, N. F., Ragheb, W. F., and Abdel-Sayed, G., "Ductile FRP Strengthening Systems," ACI Concrete International, Vol. 2, No. 1, January 2005, PP. 31-36.

Grace, Roller, J. J., Navarre, F. C., Nacey, R.B., and Bonus, W., "Load Testing a CFRP-Reinforced Bridge," ACI Concrete International, Vol. 26, No. 7, July 2004, pp. 51-57.

Grace, Ragheb, Abdel-Sayed, "Development and application of innovative triaxially braided ductile FRP fabric for strengthening concrete beams", Elsevier Publisher, Composite Structures, Vol. 64, Issues 3-4, June 2004, pp. 521-530.

Grace, "Concrete Repair with CFRP," ACI Concrete International, Vol. 26, No. 5, May 2004, pp. 45-52.
Grace, Ragheb, Abdel-Sayed, "Strengthening of Cantilever and Continuous Beams Using New Triaxially Braided Ductile Fabric," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 101, No. 2, March-April 2004.

Grace, Singh, Shenouda, and Sunup. "Flexural Response of CFRP Prestressed Concrete Box Beams for Highway Bridges," PCI Journal, Vol.49, No. 1, January/February 2004.

Grace, Ragheb, and Abdel-Sayed "Flexural and Shear Strengthening of Concrete Beams Using a new Triaxially Braided Fabric," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 100, No. 6, December 2003.

Grace, and Singh, "Design Approach for carbon Fiber -Reinforced Polymer Prestressed Concrete Bridge Beams," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 100, No. 3, May-June 2003.

Grace, Abdel-Sayed, and Ragheb, "Strengthening of Concrete Beams Using Innovative Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Fabric," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 99, No. 5, September 2002.

Grace, Navarre, Nacey, Bonus, and Collavino, "Design-Construction of Bridge Street Bridge-First CFRP Bridge in the United States," PCI JOURNAL, Vol. 47, No. 5, September/October 2002.

Grace, Enomoto, T., and Yagi, K., "Behavior of CFCC and CFRP Leadline Prestressing Systems in Bridge Construction", PCI JOURNAL, Vol. 47, No. 3, May/June 2002.

Grace, Enomoto, Abdel-Sayed, Yagi, and Collavino, "Experimental Study and Analysis of a Full-Scale CFRP/CFCC DT Beam," PCI JOURNAL, Vol. 48, No. 4, July/August 2003.

Grace, "Strengthening of Negative Moment Region of RC Beams using CFRP Strips", ACI Structural Journal, V. 98, No. 3, May-June 2001.

Grace, "Improved Anchoring Approach for CFRP Strips in Beams Strengthening", ACI Concrete International, Vol. 23, No. 10, October 2001.

Grace, "Response of Continuous CFRP Prestressed Concrete Bridges Under Static and Repeated Loadings," PCI JOURNAL, V. 45, No. 6, November/December 2000.

Grace, "Transfer Length of CFRP/CFCC Strands for Double-T Girders," PCI JOURNAL, V. 45, No. 5, September/October 2000.

Savaty, K. J., Lane, M., Grace, N. F., and Thomas, J., "City of Wichita Implements Pioneering Rehab Technologies-Long-term Dynamic Monitoring and CFRP Post-tensioning for a Major Bridge Restoration," ACI Concrete International, V. 22, No. 11, November 2000.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Behavior of Carbon Fiber - Reinforced Prestressed Concrete Skew Bridges," ACI Structural Journal, V. 97, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 2000.

Grace, "Innovative CFRP Continuous Prestressed Concrete Bridges," ACI Concrete International, V. 21, No. 10, Oct. 1999.
Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Mathematical Solution of Skew Bridges Prestressed with CFRP Strands," ACI Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 69, Nov.-Dec. 1999.

Grace, Abdel-Sayed, Soliman, and Sale, "Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymer CFRP Laminates," ACI Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1999.

Grace, Soliman, Abdel-Sayed, and Saleh, "Behavioral and Ductility of Simple and Continuous FRP Reinforced Beams," ASCE J. of Composites for Construction, V. 2, No. 4, Nov. 1998.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Behavior of CFRP Externally Draped Strands in Prestressed Concrete Bridges," PCI Journal, V. 43, No. 5, September/October 1998.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Ductility of Internally/Externally CFRP Prestressed Concrete Bridges," ACI Concrete International, V. 20, No. 6, June 1998.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Double-Tee and CFRP/GFRP Bridge System," ACI Concrete International, V. 18, No. 2, February 1996.

Grace, Bagchi, and Kennedy, "Nonlinear Deformation of Laminated Composites," ASCE, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, V. v117, No. 2, February 1991.

Reddy, K.R., H. Hettiarachchi, N. Parakalla, PJ. Gangathulasi, and J. Bogner (in-press). "Hydraulic Conductivity of Municipal Solid Waste in Landfills." ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering.

Reddy, K.R., H. Hettiarachchi, J. Gangathulasi, and J. Bogner (in press, scheduled for August 2009). "Compressibility and Shear Strength of Landfillled Municipal Solid Waste at Orchard Hills Landfill."  Waste Management & Research.

Reddy, K.R., H. Hettiarachchi, J. Gangathulasi, and J. Bogner (in press, scheduled for July 2009). "Geotechnical Properties of Synthetic Municipal Solid Waste," International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering.

Hettiarachchi, H., J. Meegoda, and P. Hettiaratchi (2009). "A model to predict settlements and landfill gas generation in bioreactor landfills coupled with gas generation and moisture distribution." Waste Management Journal, Elsevier Publications, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 1018-1025.

Reddy, K.R., H. Hettiarachchi, J. Gangathulasi, and J. Bogner (2009). "Geotechnical Properties of Fresh Municipal Solid Waste at Orchard Hills Landfill."  Waste Management Journal, Elsevier Publications, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 952-959.

Hettiarachchi, C.H., J.N. Meegoda, J. Tavantzis, and J.P.A Hettiaratchi (2006). "A Numerical Model to Predict Settlements and Gas Generation in Bioreactor Landfills." Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 139 (3), pp 514-522.

Conference Papers
Carpenter, D. D. & Kaluvakolanu (2009), "The Lawrence Technological University Greenroof Performance Evaluation Project"  Accepted for publication in Proceedings of the 2009 World Environmental and   Water Resources Congress, Kansas City, KS.

Carpenter, D. D. (2008), "A case study on the use of LEED, LID and stormwater BMPs in the redevelopment of a Midwestern urban campus." Proceedings of the 2008 National LID Annual Conference, Seattle, WA.

Hallam, L., & Carpenter, D.D. (2008), "A Comparison of Engineered Soil Mixtures on Bioretention Cell Performance." Proceedings of the 2008 National LID Annual Conference, Seattle, WA.

Schwartz, J.S., Niezgoda, S.L., Slate, L.O., Carpenter, D. D., Prager, R., McPhillips, M., & Lucas, S. (2007), "Urban Stream Restoration: Guidance for Monitoring and Assessment Protocols."  Proceedings of the 2007 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, Tampa, FL.

Schwartz, J.S., Niezgoda, S.L., Slate, L.O., Prager, R., Carpenter, D. D., McPhillips, M., & Lucas, S. (2006), "Urban Stream Restoration: Guidance for Monitoring and Assessment Protocols."  Proceedings of the 2006 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, Omaha, NB.

Carpenter, D. D., McPhillips, M., Prager, R., Schwartz, J. & Slate, L. (2006). Ethical & Professional Issues Associated with River Restoration. Proceedings of the 2006 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, Omaha, NB.

Carpenter, D.D., J. Schwartz, L. Slate, S. Sinha, K. Brennan, and J. MacBroom (2004), "The Status of Urban Stream Restoration in the United States,"  Proceedings of the 2004 ASCE World Water & Environmental Resources Congress, Salt Lake City, UT.

Carpenter, D.D., S.J. Wright, and J. Selegean (presenting author) (2003),  "An Investigation of Pocket Wave Absorbers."  Proceedings of the 3rd International Coastal Structures Conference, Portland, OR.

Schwartz, J., D.D. Carpenter, L. Slate, S. Sinha, K. Brennan, and J. MacBroom (2003), "Research Needs for Improvement of Principals and Practices in Urban Stream Restoration." Proceedings of the 2003 EWRI World Water & Environmental Resources Congress, Philadelphia, PA.

Carpenter, D.D., L.Slate, J. Schwartz, S. Sinha, K. Brennan, and J. MacBroom (2003), "Regional preferences and accepted practices in urban stream restoration: An Overview of Case Studies." Proceedings of the 2003 EWRI World Water & Environmental Resources Congress, Philadelphia, PA.

Slate, L., K. Bowers, D.D. Carpenter, and J. Gracie (2003), "Urban Stream Restoration: What Makes a Project Successful?" Proceedings of the 2003 EWRI World Water & Environmental Resources Congress, Philadelphia, PA.

Carpenter, D.D. (2003), "Hands-on experiments for teaching children about erosion, watershed management, and water resources." Proceeding of the 2003 EWRI World Water & Environmental Resources Congress, Philadelphia, PA.

Wright, S.J., D.D. Carpenter, and A. Cunningham (2001), "Laboratory Model Studies of Wave Energy Dissipation in Harbors."  4th International Symposium on Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis, San Francisco, CA.

Carpenter D.D., S.J. Wright, and J. Selegean (2001), "Laboratory and Field Investigation of Pocket Wave Absorbers."  Proceedings of the 2001 Coastal Zone Conference, Cleveland, OH.

Meadows, G., D.D. Carpenter, et al. (1997).  "A field investigation of functional design parameter influence on groin performance,"  Proceedings of the 1997 Coastal Dynamics Conference, Southhampton, England.

Schwartz, J., D.D. Carpenter (presenting author), L. Slate, S. Sinha, K. Brennan, and J. MacBroom (2003), "Research Needs for Improvement of Principals and Practices in Urban Stream Restoration." Proceedings of the 11th National Nonpoint Source Monitoring Workshop, Dearborn, MI.

Grace, N.F., "5-Years Monitoring of First CFRP Prestressed Concrete 3-Span Bridge in US," Structural Faults & Repair, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, June 10 - 12, 2008 (Keynote Paper).

Grace, N.F., "Use of CFRP Strands in a Cable-Stayed Bridge in USA," 5th Middle East Symposium on Structural Composites for Infrastructure Applications, Hurghada, Egypt, May 23 - 25, 2008.

Grace, N.F., "Performance of the First Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bridge in the United States," 5th International Specialty Conference on Fiber Reinforced Materials, Singapore, August 28 - 29, 2008 (Keynote Paper).

Grace, N. F., and Grace, M., "Effect of Repeated Loading and Long term Humidity exposure on Flexural response of CFRP Strengthened Concrete Beams," International Symposium on Bond of FRP in Structures, Hong Kong, December 2005.

Grace, N. F., Wael, R., and Abdel-Sayed, A., "Innovative Triaxailly Braided Ductile FRP Fabric for Strengthening Structures, 7th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforce Polymer for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-7), ACI, Kansas City, MO., November 2005.

Grace, N. F., and Grace, M., "Durability Evaluation of CFRP Strengthened RC Beams," Third International Conference Composites in Construction, Lyon, France, July 2005.

Grace, N. F., "Monitoring and Response of CFRP Prestressed Concrete Bridge," NSF Workshop on Sensing Issues in Civil Structural Health Monitoring, Honolulu, September 2004.

Grace, N. F., "Behavior of CFRP Prestressed Concrete Beam," IABSE Symposium, Shanghai, China, September 2004.

Grace, N. F., Ragheb, W., and Abdel-Sayed, G., "Developing and Modeling of New Ductile FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures," IASTED International Conference on Applied Simulation and Modeling," Rhodes, Greece, June 2004.

Grace, N. F., and Abdel-Sayed, G., "Construction and Evaluation of Full-Scale CFRP Prestressed Concrete DT-Girder," Proceeding of the Sixth International Symposium of FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, Singapore, July 2003.

Grace, N. F., Ragheb, W., and Abdel-Sayed, G., "Development and Application of Innovative Triaxially Braided Ductile Fabric for Strengthening Concrete Beams," National Science Foundation-International Workshop on Structural Composites, Cairo, Egypt, December 2003.
 
Grace, N. F., and Singh, S., "Unified Analysis and Design Approach for CFRP Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders," Proceedings of the 10th US-Japan Conference on Composite Materials, Stanford, CA, September 2002.

Grace, N. F., Tang, B., and Abdel-Sayed, G., "New Approach to Multi-Span CFRP Continuous Prestressed Bridges," Proceedings, The International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, Hong Kong, China 12-15 December 2001.

Grace, N.F., "Innovative use of FRP Materials in Construction," Arab Conference for Building Materials and Economical Challenges, Cairo, Egypt, April 2000.

Grace, N. F., Abdel-Sayed, G., and Blackburn, N. "CFRP Prestressed Concrete Skew Bridges," Bridge Engineering Conference, Sharm El-Sheikh, Sinai, Egypt, March 2000.

Grace, N. F., Soliman, Abdel-Sayed, G., and Saleh, K., "Strengthening of Continuous Beams using Fiber Reinforced Polymer Laminate," 4th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforce Polymer for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-4), ACI, SP-188, Baltimore, Oct. 1999.

Salib, Abdel-Sayed, and Grace, "Crack Formation in Fiber Reinforced Polymer Concrete Beams," 4th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforce Polymer for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-4), ACI, SP-188, Baltimore, Oct. 1999.

Grace, Savaty, and Thomas, "Post-Tensioning Strengthening of Bridge Piers Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced polymer Leadline Rods," 4th International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Reinforced Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-4), ACI, SP-188, Baltimore, October 1999.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Use of CFRP/CFCC Strands in Prestressed Concrete Bridges," Structural Faults & Repair, London, UK, July 1999.
Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Effect of Draped Angel on the Strength of CFRP Strands," 2nd Middle East Symposium on Structural Composites for Infrastructure Applications, Hurghada, Egypt, April 1999.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Use of CFRP Composites with High Strength Concrete in Bridges," First International Conference on High Strength Concrete, Engineering Foundation, Kona, Hawaii, July 1997.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Behavior of Externally/Internally Prestressed Concrete Composite Bridge System," Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-3), V. 2, Sapporo, Japan, October 1997.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Ductility of Prestressed Concrete Bridges Using Internal/External CFRP Strands," Structures and Repair Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, Aug. 1997.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Behavior of CFRP Bridge System," Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures Conference (ACMBS), Montreal, Canada, Aug. 1996.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Feasibility of GFRP/CFRP Prestressed Concrete 'Demonstration' Bridge in the USA," 4th National Workshop on Bridge Research in Progress, Buffalo, New York, June 1996.

Grace, and Abdel-Sayed, "Innovative Use of Advanced Composites in Double-T Highway Bridges," 1st International Conference on Concrete Structures, Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 1996.

Grace, Bagchi, and Kennedy, "Fiber-Reinforced Composites versus Steel and Concrete in Industrial Buildings," 6th Annual ASM/ESD Composites Conference/Exposition, Detroit, MI, Oct. 1990.

Bagchi, Grace, and Kennedy, "Nonlinear Deformation of Laminated Composites," AIAA, ASME, ASCE, AHS, ASC, 30th Structural Dynamics and Material Conference, Mobil, AL, Apr. 1989.

Kennedy and Grace, "Recent Studies in Composite Bridges," International Conference on Steel and Aluminum Structures, University College, Cardiff, Wales, Great Britain, July 1987.

Hettiarachchi, C.H., J.N. Meegoda and J.P.A Hettiaratchi (2007). "A model to predict settlements and landfill gas generation in bioreactor landfills." The 22nd International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, PA.

Hettiarachchi, C.H., J.N. Meegoda, and J.P.A Hettiaratchi (2006). "A Numerical Model to Predict Settlements and Moisture Distribution in Bioreactor Landfills." Proceedings of CSCE 2006 conference, Calgary, Canada

Other Publications

Grace, "Materials for the Future-Innovative Use for FRP Materials for Construction," The Engineering Society of Detroit, Technology Century, summer 2002.

Hettiarachchi, H. and Ge, L. (2009). "Use of Geogrids to Enhance Stability of Slope in Bioreactor Landfills: A Conceptual Method," ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 187, ISBN 978-0-7844-1023-3.

Reddy, K.R., J. Gangathulasi, H. Hettiarachchi, and J. Bogner (2008). "Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste Subjected to Leachate Recirculation." ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 177, ISBN 978-0-7844-0970-1.

Hettiarachchi, C.H., J.N. Meegoda and J.P.A Hettiaratchi (2007). "Prediction of waste settlement in bioreactor landfills incorporating waste biodegradation." ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 163, ISBN 10 # 078440897.

Hunte, C., J.P.A. Hettiaratchi, J.N. Meegoda, and C.H. Hettiarachchi (2007). "Settlement of bioreactor landfills during filling operations." ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 163, ISBN 10 # 078440897.

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Dr. Robert W. Fletcher

Research Projects
Biodiesel fuel production and testing

Project Description:
The project objectives are to understand alternative ways to produce biodiesel and to evaluate the performance and energy content of biodiesel made from common cooling vegetable oils.  Testing is done using an oxygen bomb calorimeter, and diesel electric generators coupled to various power loads. Biodiesel is viewed as a possible alternative to fossil fuels. 

PEM fuel cell durability and reliability 
Project Description:
This project is to understand the reliability and durability of hydrogen powered PEM fuel cells.  The project involves extensive testing of two fuel cells under a broad variety of environmental conditions.  Hydrogen is viewed as a possible alternative to fossil fuels. 

Photovoltaic module and system evaluations
Project Description:
This project is an ongoing evaluation of the 10 kW PV system installed in 2005 on the roof of the engineering building high-bay, as well as an evaluation of several modules used in the Alternative Energy lab in the college of engineering. Photovoltaic systems are viewed as possible long-term alternatives to fossil fuel energy sources.

Scholarly Publications
Fletcher, R.W., Bacyinsky, R.A., and Knudsen, R.D., DTE Energy Hydrogen Technology Power Park creates groundwork for the future, Technology Century Journal of the ESD, August - Sep. 2007.

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Dr. Badih Jawad

Scholarly Publications
Gebara, N.E., and Jawad, B.A., Reducing material waste using Six Sigma in printed circuit board assembly, ASME International Engineering Congress and Exposition, Seattle, WA, Nov. 11-15, 2007.

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Dr. Vladimir Vantsevich

Scholarly Publications
Vantsevich, V.V., Power losses and energy efficiency of multi-wheel drive vehicles: A method for evaluation, Journal of Terramechanics, vol. 45, Issue 3, pp. 89-101, 2008.

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